Monday, August 19, 2019
Comparing O. Henry's A Municipal Report and Susan Glaspell's A Jury of Her Peers In ?A Municipal Report? by O. Henry and ?A Jury of Her Peers? by Susan Glaspell, the authors provide a disappearance of evidence about a retaliatory murder, but only one is true to human life and shows characteristics about human life while the other falsifies it. In this case ?A Municipal Report? is most definitely the one that fixes the story to merely entertain the reader, and ?A Jury of Her peers? lets go the true character of mankind. In ?A Municipal Report? O. Henry tells the story in a first person perspective through a man who thinks he is detached from the world. In O. Henry?s story we see that certain characters stand out among the rest by the details that he gives us. The author?s tone in, ?I stepped off the train at 8 P.M.,? is meant to appear nonchalant to give a feel that the narrator is merely an observer in the story. The characterization in the story is also unrealistically portrayed. Azalea Adair is a poor woman who, despite how needy she is, tells the narrator, ?You must have a cup of tea.? She is depicted as a good character without a single bad bone in her body. That would only be meant for the story since O. Henry could have set her up more realistically than a helpless princess needing to be rescued. Another character that defies human reality is Ceasar. He is shown to be a good character as well, giving Azalea his money and helping her out when she needs him. There is nothing bad about Ceasar th at would make the reader dislike him. He is the classic knight in shining armor that could only be set up in a fantasy world. Next is the evil man Caswell. The narrator, who says, ?I have seen few men whom I have so instantaneous... ...he people had practical characteristics that did not make the story any less realistic. The styles of ?A Municipal Report? and ?A Jury of Her Peers? differed greatly in the sense of realism. While O. Henry?s story obviously served the entertaining purpose with the unpractical sense of characters and development, Glaspell?s story had a meaningful interpretation of life with pragmatic characters that could reflect human life. Works Cited Glaspell, Susan. ?A Jury of Her Peers.? Literature: Structures, Sound, and Sense. Eds Laurence Perrine and Thomas R. Arp. San Diego: HBJ, 1991. 324-41 O. Henry. ?A Municipal Report.? Perrine and Arp 312-24. Perrine, Laurence. Analysis of ?A Jury of Her Peers?. Instructors Manual to accompany Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense. San Diego: HBJ, 1991. 41-43 ---. Analysis of ?A Municipal Report.? Instructors Manual 40-41.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Hamlet and Go Tell it on the Mountain Claudius and Gabriel are very similar, as they are very different people. Claudius and Gabriel share the characteristic that both regret what they do. Gabriel doesn't actually get down on his knees and pray like Claudius does, the reader could tell though, that Gabriel is having some great problems with the way he is. His personality interferes with his daily life. He hates white people yet he is a preacher, a teacher of God. Gabriel does other things throughout the book that make other characters in the book wonder if Gabriel really wants to be a preacher, if Gabriel really can handle the responsibilities, any longer, that are needed to be a preacher. Claudius killed his own brother. His actions have basically ruined his life. The way he thinks and handles things aren't the most productive and at times aren't very bright. Gabriel has many problems with his life. At times, he can't really control his thoughts and his actions. He is a very confused person as well. He does so many things throughout the book that make it seem as if he doesn't care about anyone or anything and just does what ever he wants to do, with out any boundaries being drawn to what he could do. He had sex with a women that was not his wife, while he was married!! How can a preacher do such a thing. It was against Gods Commandments but he did it anyway. Does he regret what he does? Probably. He thinks to himself and maybe prays to God asking him for his forgiveness and help to stop him from being such a person. If something came up like to have sex with another women other than his wife, he would probably go ahead and have sex without thinking to much about it. Gabriel is also a very selfish person. He does things that he wants to do. Gabriel doesn't sacrifice anything for anyone. If he feels like having sex with another women, he go es ahead and does it. He doesn't think about Deborah's thoughts, about Gods thoughts or about anyone else's thoughts. Does he even love Deborah? There was a part of the book where Gabriel was thinking to himself and he talks about how he hates Deborah. The following is that same part. "Deborah turned to look at them, and at that moment Gabriel saw, as though for the first time, how black and bony was this wife of his, and how wholly undesirable.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Of all ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s works , Julius Caesar is a play that hinges upon rhetoric Ã¢â¬â both as the art of persuasion and an artifice used to veil intent. The most striking of Shakespeare is his command of language. In Mark AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral oration for Caesar, we have not only one of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s most recognizable opening lines but one of his finest examples of rhetorical irony at work. The speech could serve as a thematic synopsis to Julius Caesar. One of the most important and significant parts in the play is the funeral speech given by both Brutus and Mark Antony. At first, the funeral speeches seem to have no true significant meaning. However in further investigation it is established that the speeches ultimately serve as the basis for the final outcome of the play. By exploring the speeches of both Brutus and Mark Antony we are able to focus on the important details which alter one from the other. Through this analysis we are also able to realize why BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢s speech becomes one of his justifications and explanations, while AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s becomes one of manipulation and skill. It is known that both Brutus and Antony desired to appeal to the common people. However, the way in which each man went about it differs drastically. Not only did it influence the outcome of the play, but each speech also offers a unique insight on each of the speakers. BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢s speech BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢s speech becomes one of acquittal, not only for the people of Rome, but for Brutus himself. He uses his Ã¢â¬Å"honor and nobilityÃ¢â¬ as a shield to defend and justify his actions to the crowd. Brutus states that he has carried out this horrendous act because of his love for Rome, and for the good of the people. Ã¢â¬Å"This is my answer, not that I have loved Caesar less, but that I love Rome moreÃ¢â¬ ¦ (3. 2. 21-22). In his speech he requests that the people use their Ã¢â¬Å"reasonÃ¢â¬ to judge him. Although this seduces the crowd, it is not until after one of the common people cry Ã¢â¬Å"Let him be Caesar. Ã¢â¬ (3. 2. 51) that it is realized the speech is Ã¢â¬Å"merely too good for them. Ã¢â¬ Brutus begins to realize that liberty is not what the people wanted, but rather that they desire a powerful leader. Although his speech serves the purpose for its practical effectiveness, Brutus later comes to discover that his lack of insight of human nature aided in the apparent hopelessness of his cause. In comparison Mark Antony fully understands human nature and uses his awareness of it in his speech. Antony appeals to the passion and the grief of the people. What Brutus failed to recognize in the people, Antony used to his best interest. He realized that the people of Rome were completely incapable of acting with Ã¢â¬Å"reasonÃ¢â¬ and he employed this inability to manipulate and control their emotions and actions. By using BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢ own explanations for CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s death to begin his speech, Antony proves his validity to the crowd. By questioning CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s ambition, yet never actually humiliating the conspirators; He succeeds in purposely leading the crowd away from any rational defense provided by Brutus. Antony uses his own grief along with a series of lies to remove the sympathy of the people. Through his powerful and honest speech he is able to cast a shadow of doubt into the minds of the people, and the crowd begins to gaze at the true motive behind CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s murder. Antony understands the needs and wants of the people and uses this to prey upon their emotions and passions. He dangles CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s Will in front of the people and then quickly puts it away again, knowing that the crowd will demand that it be read. Antony also recalls memories of the cloak Caesar now wears, while revealing his bloodied body, fully aware of the havoc it will reek, but unrelenting in his quest for revenge. AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s Speech AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance on the bully pulpit came as no surprise. To be sure, Antony does not have it easy. He is already a man distrusted by the conspirators for his friendship with Caesar. Brutus lets him speak at CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral, but only after Brutus,a great orator in his own right, has spoken first to Ã¢â¬Å"show the reason of our CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s deathÃ¢â¬ . Burtus makes it very clear that Antony may speak whatever good he wishes of Caesar so long as he speaks no ill of the conspirators. Obviously Antony has two advantages over Burtus: his subterfuge and his chance to have the last word. It is safe to say that Antony makes the most of his opportunity. He even mocks the senators and merely sets the table for dissent. He progressively hits upon the notes of ambition and honourable in a cadence that soon calls both terms into question. Friends, Romans, Countrymen, lend me your ears; From a rhythmic perspective, the trochaic feel of this opening immediately commands attention. The succession of hard stresses is also ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s way of using the verse to help Antony cut through the din of the crowd. Antonoy also echoes the opening line that Brutus uses [Ã¢â¬Å"Romans, countrymen and loversÃ¢â¬ ],but conspicuously rearranges it; where Brutus begins with Ã¢â¬Å"RomansÃ¢â¬ to reflect his appeal to their reason, Antony begins with Ã¢â¬Å"friendsÃ¢â¬ , which reflects the more emotional tact he will take throughout the rest of his speech. Remember also that Antony has entered the Forum with CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s body in tow and will use corpse as a prop throughout his oration. Antony follows with a line of straight iambic pentameter punctuated with a feminine ending [ Ã¢â¬Å"I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him]. Here is the first irony of AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, in that he is unequivocally here to praise Caesar. Antony is, in fact, lying. Come I to speak in CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral,Antony returns to the actual predicate of his statement with innocuous metrical regularity. The line is all but a throway; Antony doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want the crowd dwelling on the idea that he is speaking here by permission. The preceding parenthetical insertion of Brutus and the rest being Ã¢â¬Å"honourable menÃ¢â¬ displace his emphasis and lessens the impression that Brutus holds sway over him. In doing so, Antony effectively obeys the letter of his agreement without yielding to its spirit. But Brutus says he was ambitious; Antony contrasts his experience with what Brutus has said. The obvious implication is that Brutus and Antony have different views of Caesar. The more subtle implication is that since both men have claimed him as their friend, they have equal authority to speak on the subject of CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s disposition. Antony, however, has the advantage of not needing to justify his actions. Instead, Antony can focus on sawing the limb out from under BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢s argument. And Brutus is an honourable man. At this point, Antony is still ostensibly speaking well of BrutusÃ¢â¬âat least to the crowd. A plebian might think that at worst, perhaps, either Antony or Brutus has made an honest mistake in his judgment of Caesar. On the other hand, the words says, ambitious, and honourable are becoming impossible to miss. Yet Brutus says he was ambitious; This is the third time in this speech that Antony utters this refrain. Every time he says this, it draws Brutus in an increasingly harsher light. The recurring repetition amplifies the question in the mind of the audience, There is a rather obscure rhetorical term for this technique; itÃ¢â¬â¢s known as repotia, which describes using the same phrase with minor variations in tone, diction, or style. My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar, The regular iambic rhythm of the line and the feminine ending both help soften this lineÃ¢â¬â¢s tone, which contrasts the high fervor of Ã¢â¬Å"O judgment! Ã¢â¬ ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a simple metaphor that holds up well four centuries later. To AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s credit, the sentiment is grounded in his love for Caesar; itÃ¢â¬â¢s also quite telling of the character that heÃ¢â¬â¢s able to use this emotion in such a cynical enterprise. Throughout his speech Antony calls the conspirators honorable men. He then says, Ã¢â¬Å"You [the crowd] all did love him once, not without cause. What cause withholds you then to mourn for him? Ã¢â¬ This question goes against Brutus by questioning his speech when he betrayed Caesar. Now the crowd is starting to turn against the conspirators and follow Antony. Even though in his speech Antony never directly calls the conspirators traitors, he is able to call them Ã¢â¬Å"honourableÃ¢â¬ in a sarcastic manner that the crowd is able to understand. He starts out by citing that Caesar had thrice refused the crown, which refutes the conspiratorsÃ¢â¬â¢ main cause for killing Caesar. He reminds them of CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s kindness and love for all, humanizing Caesar as innocent. Next he teases them with the will until they demand he read it, and he reveals CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËgiftÃ¢â¬â¢ to the citizens. Finally, Mark Antony leaves them with the question, was there ever a greater one than Caesar? which infuriates the crowd. He then turns and weeps. Antony then teases the crowd with CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s will, which they beg him to read, but he refuses. Antony tells the crowd to Ã¢â¬Å"have patienceÃ¢â¬ and expresses his feeling that he will Ã¢â¬Å"wrong the honourable men whose daggers have stabbed CaesarÃ¢â¬ if he is to read the will. The crowd yells out Ã¢â¬Å"they were traitorsÃ¢â¬ and have at this time completely turned against the conspirators and are inflamed about CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Antony uses the Ã¢â¬Å"CeremonialÃ¢â¬ mode of persuasion in order to convince his audience that Caesar is not worthy of honor and praise. Antony must use Ã¢â¬Å"pathosÃ¢â¬ in order to appeal to the emotion of the audience. He must understand the disposition of the audience in order to successfully persuade his audience that Caesar truly was an ambitious man. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ Bear with me; / my heart is in the coffin there with Caesar, / And I must pause till it come back to me. Ã¢â¬ (JC III ii 47) Marc AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s speech at CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral was so cunning and powerful that it caused the crowdÃ¢â¬â¢s loyalties to sway. Prior to Marc AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s oration the crowd favored Brutus and the conspirators. However, Marc AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s compelling discourse caused the plebeians to support him, and not Brutus. Marc Antony used three literary devices during his funeral oration, rhetorical question, sarcasm, and repetition, to successfully persuade the crowd. Although the crowd was supportive of the conspirators after BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, Marc AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s use of sarcasm in his funeral oration caused them to rethink who they should support. Conclusion Although both of CaesarÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral speeches seem to serve the basic purpose of appealing to the people, their dissimilarity serves as a great significance. BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢ speech, which appeared to be, honest becomes a speech of symmetrical structure, balanced sentences, ordered procedure, rhetorical questions and abstract subject matter, and ultimately became a speech of utter dishonesty. This along with BrutusÃ¢â¬â¢ lack of human insight aided in his inevitable downfall. Mark AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s speech on the other hand, for all its playing on passions and all its lies, proved to be at the bottom a truly honest speech because of AntonyÃ¢â¬â¢s unconditional love for Caesar. To that extent Antony had truth on his side, making him concrete and real rather then abstract, and with this aided in his successful victory.
Friday, August 16, 2019
The Pearl Epilogue It has been five years since Kino and Juana through away the pearl back into the deep blue sea. Kino, has been having many dreams about the day CoyotitoÃ¢â¬â¢s head had been blown off of his silk skin body. From that day, they knew that it was time to enter a period of hiding. A new King of Spain was chosen because of the old one being assassinated. It was the previous Kings son who was bloodthirsty to find where Kino and Juana were hiding because since Kino had killed a man, he was also pinned for the murder of King Aurellious; which was not a crime he had committed.The King of Spain had searched the nativeÃ¢â¬â¢s entire homeland to hopefully capture them, but the King was thinking to smart. For five years, Kino and Juana have been hiding in a dark black cave that was as cold as a freezer. They were feared of being ripped to shreds as if they were real animals being skinned. Kino and Juana have grown apart from purposes long ago, but they realized they needed each other for the problems they are encountering now. Although Kino and Juana had their differences in seeing each other, they each had moments over the years where they loved each other very much.It was enough for Juana to reach a stage of being pregnant once again. With a new baby on the way it certainly kept Juana occupied for many months. Kino for months found food, water, and enough things to call a cave somewhat of his home. No matter how many animals Kino had skinned it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough to keep him or Juana warm. Juana was growing very sick because she was losing energy from caring the baby in her stomach. When the time came for the baby can come out of JuanaÃ¢â¬â¢s whom, she was on the edge of dying.They both knew that the baby would have to be cut out of JuanaÃ¢â¬â¢s whom, so Juana insisted to do anything to her to get the one thing Kino and her wanted the most, their beautiful baby daughter. Kino had to kill Juana for she wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to suffer the pain of being sliced like a butcher slices meat. The new born girl had finally come. Kino and Juana always remembered the wonderful years they had with Coyotito, so Kino decided to name his new born baby girl; Coyotita. But, as soon as Kino had Coyotita wrapped around his arms, a million thoughts came pouring into his brain; from how the baby will survive with no ursery, to finding food and watching Coyotita at the same time. Kino soon realized that he really needed Juana while he did the rest by getting resources to stay alive in the cave. Kino was truly living like a caveman. He had no education, he is wanted dead or alive, and he has a new baby that might die because of him not being able to support her. He is running out of time to feed himself and his baby, so he is coming up with a plan to get his life back together. He is deciding on returning to his village with the baby wrapped in white tiger skin placed in a weaved oval shape basket, with a note on the left side of him.Kino was p lanning on bringing Coyotita to his brother for a while so Kino can turn himself over to the King. But, Kino does not know that he was also accused for the murder of their former King of Spain. Kino was completely confused like an orphan trying to understand that his parents werenÃ¢â¬â¢t his birth parents. He was about to enter the gates of the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Kingdom as hundreds of soldiers ran towards him screaming in Spanish to stay down and not to move. He was immediately taken to the King for his sentence.The King was screaming at Kino for what he has done. Kino apologized for killing a man, but the king began again to scream because he was explaining to Kino that King Aurellious was not just a man. From there on Kino knew that he was going to be punished with a murder that he had never committed. He was not aloud to say anything after he was given his life long sentence or the choice of being executed. Kino chose to be executed. Ten years later, Coyotita was living a very well educated life with her uncle watching over her.
The Rise of Black British Culture from Black British Music like Reggae, Jazz, Ska to the Black British Education in Britain, seen in Ã¢â¬Å"Some Kind of BlackÃ¢â¬ by Diran Adebayo The Black British culture is somewhat similar to that of the culture of blacks in America; however some things are more influential and seen differently in Britain than America. Black British Music is seen as very influential not only for Black British culture however for Britain music as a whole. The mixture of pop, ska, and punk had a huge impact on not only blacks in Britain however whites also.Another aspect of the Black British culture is the rise of the black culture in politics, labor, and education. Like America, blacks in the postwar Britain were discrimination against and were not welcomed with open arms; however Black British held onto their culture and earned their place in society. Black British music is very influential in Britain to most individuals in society. Through Ã¢â¬Å"Some Kind of BlackÃ¢â¬ written by Diran Adebayo, the reader can see the influence of music in characters. Reggae, Hip Hop, and Jungle music are three types of Black British music that are very influential in Britain.Black British music contains music from performers like George Bridgetower to Billy Waters, who was more of a street performer. Black British music is developed by various influences; especially Caribbean influences, it also has been influenced by Black American styles of music like rap. Like most music, Black British music has many influences however it has its own distinctive identity and represents Black British as a whole. Reggae is one very influential type of Black British music. It was developed in Jamaica around the late 1960s and contains different styles of music like ska and rocksteady.Groups like Ã¢â¬ËBlack RootsÃ¢â¬â¢ were very influential in the eighties and nineties. Reggae contains various instruments from the drums and other percussions, to bass, guitars, keyb oards, horns, vocals, ect. Reggae is still very popular today all around the world. Hip Hop is also a very influential factor in the Black British culture, however it represented a new generation of blacks in Britain. This type of music was seen in Ã¢â¬Å"Some Kind of BlackÃ¢â¬â¢ as moving on from the generation of new immigrants to actually being born in Britain. Hip Hop started in the 1970s and became very popular in the 1980s.Most of the hip hop music in Britain was created by men and was seen as very masculine and tough. This type of music definitely impacted the perception on blacks and developed various stereotypes for the Black British society. It portrayed the criminal, gangster blacks in society, which gave society a very harsh and negative outlook on men. Also a lot of this music was concentrated on sex, or drugs. During the post war Britain era, many women were seen as objects or sex symbols and a lot of this music contained this perception of women so it definitely inf luenced the view of women at the time.A lot of the rappers, or individuals who were involved with hip hop were always seen with a lot of women, so the individuals who saw them as idols, were impacted by this type of behavior, which didnÃ¢â¬â¢t help the view of women. With the influences of music, and blacks defining their own blackness identity throughout Britain, the Black British culture has made a lot of progress in society as a whole. Like America, Black British was portrayed as invisible, criminals, and also accompanied lower positions in the labor market.However, today Black British are occupying better paid jobs, political positions, and incorporation their own identity and culture within the British society. Black British has various aspects of their culture however music is one I find very interesting and very influential to the blacks in Britain. Today, a lot of the Black British music is seen in America, also during the past this type of music impacted individuals in Am erica, so not only is Black British culture influencing Britain, and Europe it also influences America and other countries around the world.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Human Resource is a field that has attained reasonable and due attention by many leading firms in recent times. Human Resource has been recognized as an important factor for achieving success in the global arena and in gaining a competitive advantage in the industry. Many leading firms put special importance on the behavior of their work force playing an important role in the success of the organization. To maintain this they have planned and organized their human resource function in such a manner that it provides them a competitive advantage in the industry they operate. If we talk about Human Resource Management which has been a dedicated field for improving Human Resource function of any organization puts special emphasis on certain important aspects to be taken care of regarding the employee to achieve success in formulating a successful Human Resource department. These factors are the compensation plans and strategies, Reward and incentives plan, Training and trainability of the employees, Hiring and Recruiting and Future or career development plans (Mathis and Jackson, 2007). All these factors play a strong role and go side by side in the formulation of a competitive Human Resource Department. Human Resource has recently achieved a huge amount of success due to the realization of its importance in the organizational environment. It has been identified as a competitive advantage by some of the organizations due to the importance of Human Resource in the related industry. Human Resource Management has also changed its shape according to the trends in the World and the factors that drive change. These factors include Globalization, Technology, Diversity, and Ethics. All these factors go side by side as the business spreads due to these factors (Dessler, 2007). Globalization has been due to the technological advancements and because of which diversity increases and more ethics related situations arise in an organization. The work of human resource at one hand increases due to globalization, diversity and ethics but on the other hand Technology helps them to resolve these issues. There have been recent trends of using more and more technological equipment in the Human Resource processes. The major work of the Human Resource is to provide the organization with quality people that become the work force of the organization. In this paper we would concentrate on two functions of the Human Resource Department and how they have changed according to the trends of the human society and development of Humans. First we would discuss induction which is a very common practice in the current scenario of any organization. Induction is basically the first step in which an employee gets to know about his or her workplace environment. This covers each and every activity that helps the employee in adapting to the environment and people around him at his or her workplace. Induction can also be termed as the process of building a relationship between the employee and the organization the nature of this relationship is of a two way communication process (French, 2006). Starting on a new position and with a new organization can be a process which might take some time for the employee and the organization to get settled with. There are many new things that need to be understood and get familiar with these include fellow employees, supervisors and managers to interact, entirely new processes that need to be understood and followed, new offices and buildings that are required to be navigated, learning to work on new software, new and unknown employment environment to understand and new tasks to learn. This transition or all the above mentioned activities are made easier and more effective for the new employee as well as for the employer if the induction schemes in the organization are effective and efficient (Mathis and Jackson 2007). There are obviously costs for implementing effective and efficient induction schemes but the benefits are more far reaching and long lasting if a comparison of both costs and benefits are made. Induction is a process that has been recently added in the organizational hiring and recruiting process by the Human Resource function. There was no concept of induction some 15 to 20 years back. As organizations tend to realize the importance of working environment, which factors affect the performance of an employee and the importance of organizational culture induction has been the solution or the bridge to reduce the gap between an employee and its surroundings in a new environment (Ivancevich, 2009). This not only helps the employee in speeding up the level of his performance in the organization but also reduces the time to know different people around the organization. Performance Appraisal is another important task that needs to be completed by the Human Resource Department. This task requires a great amount of analyzing and insight on the work an employee has been doing. The employee performance is not the only criterion that is considered while creating performance appraisals. Other aspects such as employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude towards his or her job, how he or she behaves with the colleagues and other aspects such as absenteeism and the following of ethics in the work environment are also criteria that need to be studied while making performance appraisals. All this is not an easy task as studying qualitative aspects of an employee and evaluating them becomes a very difficult task to do. Apart from that employee performance can only be evaluated through the direct supervisor or manager who the employee reports to (Mondy, 2007). This can bring in to play the personal feelings and impression of the supervisor or manager under which the employee works and can create biasness in the evaluation process. Apart from this judging behaviors and attitude is another complicated task. Performance Appraisals have now included a great amount of technological tools to be used for helping in this process. Organizations have online forms for employees, which reduces the time to gather data about the performance of an employee and even retrieving it hence helping in quick appraisals and employee satisfaction of his or her performance. Not only it has reduced time but also made the procedure very effective than before helping in the work of the Human Resource Department. To conclude this paper I would like to mention the fact that all the trends and advancements in the field of human resource management have helped the organizations in making the function more effective and efficient. Some organizations proudly say that their Human Resource department is the competitive edge they have in the industry. Especially in the IT industry it is very important to maintain a effective and efficient Human Resource Department due to the fact that it can provide competitive advantage to the organization.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s generation is equipped with highly advanced and sophisticated technology that are very useful in many ways particularly in keeping and obtaining information. The internet serves not only as stock files of information but also for commercial advertisement, and for publication of all sorts of both scholarly and worthless articles as well as biased and non-biased piece of writings. This sort of complexity however, gives as a wide range of option and choices as to what one intends to do. For those who seek quality information scholarly and journal articles provides a strong references. The only thing that needs to do is evaluate the source whether its content are scholarly. In view of these, this paper will attempt to evaluate the articles listed above whether they are biased or non-biased sources by discussing the main issues raised by these sources. At the end the paper will conclude whether these sources are biased or not, based on the careful analysis of the content of each of these articles. Discussion of the articles In the first article, the main issue is the mandatory minimum sentence imposed on persons convicted of possessing half a kilogram of cocaine powder or more to at least five years imprisonment. The authors cited that this mandatory minimum have a strong bipartisan support from elected representatives and even from presidential candidates. While there are pros and cons in this issue, in view of the authors the mandatory minimum sentence can be viewed as means of attaining the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s drug control objectives (Caulkins, J. P. ; Rydell, P. ; Schwabe, W. L. ; & Chiesa, J. 1997, par. 3). Controlling drug use in the country could be a welcome objective as often times; guns and violence are linked with drug use. According to Scott Newark in his article entitled Ã¢â¬Å"The 2006 Crime Stats Analysis- Time for the TruthÃ¢â¬ drugs like cocaine, heroin, and crystal meth are astoundingly 21% up over the past five years (Newark, par. 17). While the authors discussed and considered other available alternatives on easing drug problems, their opinion were focused on reducing drug consumption rather than its impact on the society. Thus, they put more emphasis on treating heavy users than on the criminal offenses associated with the use of illegal drugs. The Second Article, written by Steven Levitt, primarily deals with the decline of crimes in America. Levitt pointed out that while most experts are predicting an explosion of crime during the early and middle of the 1990s, crime rates plunged precisely at this expected period and authorities were not anticipating it to happen. Levitt refused to attribute this decline to the popular perceptions like increased imprisonment, tougher gun control laws, strong economy, and so forth. Levitt was not surprised by this turn of events rather he questioned why the decline of criminality did not happen earlier.Ã (p. 164). According to Levitt, what is remarkable with the decline of crimes in the USA during this period was it magnitude from the 1950 to 2001. Of all the criminal offenses, Levitt identified homicide as the most serious crime that had experienced the biggest drop between 1991 and 2000, from 9. 8 to 5. 5 or a drop of forty-four percent. While Levitt focus in his article was to identify the real causes of the decline of criminal offenses in the US during the period from 1991 to 2001, he seemed to have to fail to categorically identify the real causes of such decline. Instead he shifted his emphasis on the remarkable aspect of this decline. He noted that this decline appeared unusual compared with other countries in the world, in which most of the most common criminal offenses such as homicide, robbery, and burglary experienced sharp decline from 1991 to 2000. The author also discussed the universality of this drop in crime citing decline in each subgroups for all crime categories (p. 167). However, at the end of the article, the author recognizes six factors namely, the strong economy, the changing demographics, better policing strategies, gun control laws, laws allowing the carrying of cancelled weapons, and increased of capital punishment that according to Levitt, played little or no role in the crime drop. He also acknowledge the four factors that explained the decline of crime such as the increase in number of police, the rising prison population, the receding crack epidemic and the legalization of abortion. The last article, by Scott Newark, deals with crime statistics which was accordingly Ã¢â¬Å"disappointing without critical analysis by the mediaÃ¢â¬ (par. 3). Contrary to the article by Steven Levitt, NewarkÃ¢â¬â¢s Crime Stat Analysis reveals the other side of police records of criminal offenses. While Newark was talking of the crime rates in Canada, he noted indirectly that recorded crimes are only the most serious ones suggesting that there are more crimes unreported, aside from those that were not recorded by the statistic gatherer. This means that LevittÃ¢â¬â¢s account of crime drop in the United States is clouded with doubts, indeed, according to the United States Crime Rates 1960-2007, in 2000 United States was ranked as Ã¢â¬Å"22nd having highest Criminal IndexÃ¢â¬ (United States Crime Rates). From the way it looks, NewarkÃ¢â¬â¢s article was a fair assessment of the reality of criminal offenses and offenders. He emphasized that it is unrealistic to spend billions of dollars with the rehabilitation of serious offenders who when released, will commit the same crime again. Conclusion The three articles discussed in this paper provided basic ideas about criminal offenses. Although the paper did not give a clear stand in each of the articles discussed, it leaves the paper a debatable issue regarding the seemingly contradicting views between the reality of crimes and offenses in Canada and the United States as revealed by Levitt and Newark respectively. However, while the three authors have different views and emphasized on different aspects of criminal offenses, it was clear that their common objective is to shed light on issues that they deemed needed to be pointed out to the public. Quality of Sources The first article entitled Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences: Throwing Away the Key or the TaxpayersÃ¢â¬â¢ Money by Jonathan P. Caulkins, C. Peter Rydell. William L. Schwabe and James Chiesa, was biased in the sense that the authors appeared to one sided in their opinion. They seemed to focus merely on reducing drug consumption without giving due consideration to the implication of drug related offenses. This seemed to promote sympathy of the heavy user, rather on the consequence of violating the law. This is quite tantamount to tolerating the use of illegal drugs and then rehabilitates the users later on. The second article, Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Deadline and Six that Do not by Steven Levitt is not biased article in view of its critical and balanced presentation of facts and evidences. Although The article appeared surprising given the sharp decline of crimes in the US amidst the proliferation drugs in the inner cities of America as cited in an internet article entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Operation SOS. Ã¢â¬ The article noted the proliferation of drugs in the city causing violent crimes in the neighborhood (Operation SOS) yet the author was able to shed lights on all sides affecting the issues being discussed. The third article The 2006 Crime Stats Analysis-Time for the Truth by Scott Newark is also not biased article on the ground that this source was a realistic point of view. With out pretense, the author reveals the other side of the crime statistics release by law enforcers which in view of the author, is often selective and statistic gatherer are watering down their statistics to include only the most serious offense. The source is not bias because the writer was very objective and open minded in perception of the realities behind the law enforcements records of criminal offenses. References Caulkins, J. ; Rydell, P. ; Schwabe, W. L. & Chiesa, J. Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences: Throwing Away the Key or the Taxpayers Moneyhttp://www. fathom. com/media/PDF/2172_ss. pdf Levitt, S. (2004) Ã¢â¬Å"Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Deadline and Six that Do notÃ¢â¬ Journal Of Economic PerspectivesÃ¢â¬âVlume 18,Number1http://pricetheory.uchicago. edu/levitt/Papers/LevittUnderstandingWhyCrime2004. pdf Newark, S. The 2006 Crime Stat Analysis- Time for the Truth Prime Time Crime July 23, 2007http://www. primetimecrime. com/contributing/2007/20070723newark. htm United States Crime rates 1960 Ã¢â¬â 200 http://www. disastercenter. com/crime/uscrime. htm Ã¢â¬Å"The Operation SOSÃ¢â¬ Division of Citizen Services City of Buffalo 2001- 2008http://www. ci. buffalo. ny. us/Home/City_Departments/Special_Programs_and_Agencies/Save_Our_Streets/OperationSOS